Picture of Henry OldenburgHenry Oldenburg (c. 1619 - September, 1677) worked as a diplomat and a natural philosopher. Born in Bremen, Germany, he trained in theology and received his degree on 2 November 1639. He became a tutor before settling in England during the English interregnum, where he forged a strong relationship with his lifelong patron Robert Boyle. After the Restoration he became an early member (original fellow) of the Royal Society (founded in 1660), and served as its first secretary, maintaining an extensive network of scientific contacts through Europe. He also became the founding editor of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Oldenburg began the practice of sending submitted manuscripts to experts who could judge their quality before publication. This was the beginning of both the modern scientific journal and the practice of peer review.
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